Balaji D

Chemical Engineering, Sri Sivasubramaniya Nadar College of Engineering (SSNCE) India
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Study of alkaline hydrolysis of post consumed polyethylene terephthalate waste

A Review on the Synergetic Effect of Plant Extracts on Nanomaterials for the Removal of Metals in Industrial Effluents

Aim: The review paper aims to explore the effect of plant extracts on nanomaterial adsorbent for the removal of toxic metals present in industrial effluents. Background: Water plays a major role in the sustainability of human life and its existence. Rapid industrialization and urbanization lead to an increase in the pollution and accumulation of hazardous substances which causes the degradation of the aquatic ecosystem. Heavy metals are considered to be a major threat to our environment. Amidst various metals, International Union of Pure applied chemistry (IUPAC) has termed the heavy metal based on their intensity of toxicity and hazardous effects. Nanoparticles, due to its unique properties of particle size that exists in the range of 1-100nm, insights the possibility to introduce the modified chemical groups on their surface as the capping agents, tend to possess the increased surface area, its specified functional groups induce the capability of catalytic reduction reaction and their optical characteristics plays a vital role in the industrial, agricultural and environmental sectors. Objective: Magnetic nanoparticles incorporated with the enzymes and metallic sites have been widely used both the synthesis of bio valuable products and also in the degradation of many hazardous substances like dyes, phenolic compounds and removal of metal ions present in wastewater. Methods: Superparamagnetic support nanomaterials (SPIONs) are prepared through Fe, Cu, Ni, Mn and Mg for the distinct and unique characteristic feature of reusability. These metallic nanomaterials are coated with the distinct materials like mesoporous and amorphous silica, polyvinyl alcohol and pyrrolidine, polyethene glycol, polystyrene, chitosan, dextran, starch, gelatin, polystyrene, polyacrylic acid, polymethyl methacrylate to enhance the stability of the particle. Results: In spite of the different nanomaterial, metal oxide NP's constitutes a significant property of increased stability, magnetic inertness, optical and electrical properties. A potential alternative method in nanotechnology, where the nanomaterials are prepared and used as the biosorbent in the adsorption and removal of heavy metals as well as in the degradation of hazardous dye material. As plant extracts consist of polyphenolic compounds, flavonoids, it plays a significant role as the antimicrobial agents against pathogens. Also, these integrated plant extract with the nanomaterials plays a vital role in the bioremediation process of removing the toxic pollutants from the environment. Conclusion: The green synthesis of metal/metal oxide nanoparticles using plant extract, due to the ability of polyphenolic components in the integrated system, function as natural reducing agents and has been proposed as a superior alternative to the chemical methods. These surface modified nanocatalyst tends to possess the enhanced stability and specific reactivity in the system and is used in the elimination of organic and inorganic pollutants in the industrial wastewater.

A Comprehensive Review of Effective Adsorbents Used for the Removal of Dyes from Wastewater

Aim: The objective of the review paper aims to explore and to provide the insight of various low-cost adsorbents prepared and used in the removal of hazardous dye pollutants from the contaminated industrial effluents. Background: The major untreated discharge from the textile industries constitutes a wide range of organic contaminants with the enhanced concentration of biological oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand inthe water bodies. Dyes are considered as the major water contaminants and this quest the researchers to adopt various technologies to remove the hazardous dye pollutants from the aquatic environment. Dyes are the chemical compounds that tend to adhere themselves with metal or salts by covalent bond formation or complexes by mechanical retention or physical adsorption so as to impart colours to which it is being applied. Objective: Numerous treatment methodologies which have been applied to the degradation of dyes. The current study has been focused on the distinct low cost and cost-effective adsorbents used in the removal of various dye pollutants. Also, the application of nanoparticles in the removal of the hazardous dye pollutants had received great interest because of its size and high reactive nature. Methods: The treatment technologies used in the removal of dye pollutants from wastewater have been listed as adsorption, coagulation, electrocoagulation, flocculation, membrane filtration, oxidation and biological treatment. Results: The complex structure of the dyes causes a great harmful impact on the aquatic environment. Though numerous treatment technologies have been applied, adsorption has been preferred by various researchers because of its cost-effective nature. Conclusion: The various adsorbents are used in the removal of cationic, anionic and non-ionic dyes. The different types of adsorbent from agricultural waste, activated carbons, nanomaterials and biomaterials have been discussed with the advantages and limitations.

The symbiotic effect of integrated Muraya koenigii extract and surface-modified magnetic microspheres – a green biosorbent for the removal of Cu(II) and Cr(VI) ions from aqueous solutions

Immobilized magnetic particles are substantially used in several applications, due to their superparamagnetic nature and specific binding capacity with the appropriate support molecules. The present extensive research involves in the synthesis of a robust carrier that integrates the silica-coated amino-functionalized magnetic microspheres with the plant extracts of Muraya koenigii for the removal of both Cu(II) and Cr(VI) pollutants in the wastewater. Analytical techniques include Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (Ms – 9 emu/g) and its saturation magnetization evaluates the superparamagnetic behavior; Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirms the existence of functional groups like NH2, Si-O-Si, C = C; scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy affirms the size of the biosorbent in the range of 300–500 nm and the existence of elements like Fe, N, and Si. The biosorbent shows the maximum adsorption capacity (Cr(VI) – 71.12 mg/g, Cu(II) – 73.71 mg/g). The process follows the pseudo-second-order kinetics and Langmuir isotherm model. The adsorption efficiency (Cr(VI) – 80.07% and Cu(II) – 81.54%) remains stable for nine continuous cycles after regeneration, by treating with 1 N concentrated nitric acid.

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