Ashish Singh Parihar
Token-based approach in distributed mutual exclusion algorithms: a review and direction to future research12 May 2021
The problem of mutual exclusion is a highly focused area in the distributed architecture. To avoid inconsistency in data, mutual exclusion ensures that no two processes running on different processors are allowed to enter into the same shared resource simultaneously in the system. In recent years, the consistent development of ongoing internet and mobile communication technologies, the devices, infrastructure and resources in networking systems like Ad Hoc Networks are becoming more complex and heterogeneous. Various algorithms have been introduced as a solution to mutual exclusion problem in the domain of distributed architecture over the past years. The performance and adaptability of these solutions depend on the different strategies used by them in the system. Various classifications of these strategies have been proposed such as token-based and non-token-based (also, permission-based). This paper presents a survey of various existing token-based distributed mutual exclusion algorithms (TBDMEA) in the focus of their performance measures and fault-tolerant capabilities which comprises the associated open challenges and directions to future research. In conjunction with traditional to latest proposed TBDMEA, tokenbased distributed group mutual exclusion algorithms (TBDGMEA) and token-based self-stabilizing distributed mutual exclusion algorithms (TBStDMEA) have also been surveyed in this paper as new variants of the token-based scheme.
Indian voting process is always being an important and complex task for the government of India. Each and every election time in country, government wants higher percentage of voting by its countrymen. One of the reason for the less voting in country is due to physical unavailability of the voter at voting location. Government makes every possible arrangement to each and every individual to be participate in voting but for this process, voter must be physically present at the location of voting which is not being possible for every voter. Many countries implemented automated e-voting system in some sense through various available technologies. In such automated voting environment, there are two important aspects, government wants to ensure that voter is authenticated properly via the system and voter wants this system trustworthy. For a government prospective, it becomes very necessary that government implements its automated voting system highly secure, accurate, and trustworthy. Only by assuring such parameters about the system, government can win the trust of voter. In this research paper, an end-to-end automated voting system is proposed using cryptography and blockchain technology. With the help of public–private key concept in cryptography, all communication are encrypted so that communication channel keeps flowing messages securely in network and using blockchain technology, flow of transactions becomes temper proof and secure.