Rewaida Abdel-Gaber

King Saud University Saudi Arabia
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Myristica fragrans seed extract reverses scopolamine-induced cortical injury via stimulation of HO-1 expression in male rats


Myristica fragrans, commonly known as nutmeg, belongs to the Myristicaceae family and is used as a spice and for its medicinal properties. The purpose of this study was to assess the neuroprotective effect of M. fragrans seed methanolic extract (MFE) on scopolamine-induced oxidative damage, inflammation, and apoptosis in male rat cortical tissue. MFE or N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a standard antioxidant drug, was administered 7 days before treatment with scopolamine resulted in high levels of malondialdehyde and nitric oxide (oxidative stress biomarkers), tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 beta (inflammatory mediators), and Bax and caspase-3 pro-apoptotic proteins. Additionally, scopolamine significantly depleted levels of glutathione (an antioxidant marker), Bcl-2 and c-FLIP (anti-apoptotic proteins), and antioxidant enzymes activity in cortical tissue. Scopolamine also enhanced acetylcholinesterase activity. MFE treatment protected the cortex of rats from the effects of scopolamine by reversing the effects on these toxicity markers. Interestingly, the neuroprotective effect of MFE was comparable to that exerted by the reference antioxidant NAC. Thus, our findings show that MFE has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic effects. The beneficial effects of MFE on scopolamine were partially mediated by promoting heme oxygenase 1 (Hmox1) expression and preserving cortical tissue structure.

Morphological, Molecular, and Pathological Appraisal of Hymenolepis nana (Hymenolepididae) Infecting Laboratory Mice (Mus musculus)

AbstractHymenolepis nana, typically a parasite found in conventionally established mouse colonies, has zoonotic potential characterized by autoinfection and direct life cycle. The objective of this study was to determine the rate of parasite infection in laboratory mice. The hymenolepidide cestode infected 40% of the 50 mice sampled. The rate of infection in males (52%) was higher than in females (28%). Morphological studies on the cestode parasite showed that worms had a globular scolex with four suckers, a retractable rostellum with 20–30 hooks, and a short unsegmented neck. In addition, the remaining strobila consisted of immature, mature, and gravid proglottids, irregularly alternating genital pores, lobulated ovaries, postovarian vitelline glands, and uteri with up to 200 eggs in their gravid proglottids. The parasite taxonomy was confirmed by using molecular characterization based on the sequence analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (mtCOX1) gene. The parasite recovered was up to 80% identical to other species in GenBank. High blast scores and low divergence were noted between the isolated parasite and previously described H. nana (gb| AP017666.1). The phylogenetic analysis using the COX1 sequence places this hymenolepidid species of the order Cyclophyllidea.

Light and scanning electron microscopic studies of Lepeophtheirus salmonis infecting the rosy goatfish Parupeneus rubescens


Parasites, particularly crustaceans are considered as an important limiting factor in the development of intensified fish culture. Parasitic copepod of the Arabian Gulf fish is poorly known. So, the current investigation aimed to record the caligid species infecting the rosy goatfish Parupeneus rubescens in the Arabian Gulf. One copepod species was identified, belonged to family Caligidae and labeled as Lepeophtheirus salmonis Krøyer 1837, depends mainly on its morphological, morphometric as well as ultrastructural characteristics. It characterized by lacking lunules, the anterior margin of the cephalothorax is not folded, three-segmented exopod of the fourth leg and longer than the protopod, leg 4 with middle terminal claw as long as inner one, accessory processes on terminal elements II and III of the exopod of the first leg, a genital complex distinctly wider than long, and a relatively short abdomen. Therefore, the present study demonstrated that the rosy goatfish represents a new host for Lepeophtheirus species and added locality records for this infection.

Phyllodistomum vaili(Plagiorchiida: Gorgoderidae) infecting Parupeneus rubescens (Perciformes: Mullidae): morphology and phylogeny

Abstract Knowledge of the Arabian Gulf fish’s parasite fauna is very poor. Until recently, only scattered reports from different locations are known for ecto- and endoparasites. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the digenean species that infects one of the most economically fish species in the Arabian Gulf, the rosy goatfish Parupeneus rubescens . One plagiorchiid species has been described, belonging to the Gorgoderidae family, and has been named as Phyllodistomum vaili Ho, Bray, Cutmore, Ward & Cribb, 2014 based on its morphological and morphometric characteristics. In order to accurately classify and characterize this plagiorchiid species, molecular analysis was carried out using both nuclear 18S and 28S rRNA gene regions and revealed that the present plagiorchiid species was associated with other species belonging to the Gorgoderidae family and deeply embedded in the Phyllodistomum genus, closely related to the previously described P. vaili (gb| KF013187.1, KF013173.1). The present study therefore revealed that the species Phyllodistomum is the first account as endoparasites from the rosy goatfish inhabiting the Arabian Gulf.

Microscopic studies of Neoechinorhynchus agilis (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) infecting the Thinlip mullet Liza ramada (Mugilidae)


Acanthocephalan parasite, Neoechinorhynchus agilis, is recovered and isolated from the Thinlip mullet Liza ramada obtained from the Abu Qir Coasts, Alexandria City, Egypt. Infection with this parasite species has been observed in the intestine for the examined fish. Morphological characterization was performed using light and scanning electron microscopic studies to determine the most characteristic features of the recovered Eoacanthocephalan parasite, such as the presence of globular proboscis with three rows of 6 hooks on each row, single-walled proboscis receptacle inserted at the proboscis base, and long lemnisci. Male worms characterized by testes of tandem position, large cement gland, and saefftigen’s pouch that underlying ducts of seminal vesicle and cement gland. While, female worms have a vagina with vaginal sphincter and opening by funnel into the uterus, selector apparatus between the uterus and uterine ball, ovarian mass fills the space of uterine ball, a genital pore is subterminal and provided with caudal papillae. Furthermore, it compared morphometrically with other Neoechinorhynchus agilis, which had previously described and showed little difference in measurements for different body parts.

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