School of Management Sciences - Apeejay Stya University India
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A Critical Analyses of Walmarts Expansion into Three Asian Countries

The paper aspires to review Walmart's experiences in three South East Asian countries i.e. Japan, China, and South Korea and analyse the reasons for not achieving success in them. This would help managers of retail firms, understand the pitfalls in these countries in their internationalisation journey. The content analyses of the literature review yielded several insights related to factors behind Walmart's failure in these three countries. These were further categorised as Normative, Cognitive and Regulative and also sub-categorised further basis an adapted Institutional theory model. It was found that the Normative related factors were about seven times the number of Cognitive or Regulative related factors that explained the failure. This paper reveals several aspects which other retailers need to keep in mind while planning and formulating strategies for globalization and growth.

JIMS8M: The Journal of Indian Management & Strategy

Exploring dimensional structure of antecedents of online shopping behaviour

This paper provides practical insights of conducting Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to reveal the underlying structure of a fairly big set of variables related to antecedents of online shopping behavior. The e-commerce policy formulated by the Indian government in March 2016, compelled online shopping players to focus more on improving customer experience, rather than giving large discounts, to achieve higher levels of loyalty. Therefore, understanding the antecedents of online shopping behavior becomes even more significant. To begin with, extensive scholarly literature review on studies related to antecedents of online shopping behavior was conducted. This helped in generating an initial pool of variables on motives for shopping online. However, since the literature was fairly heterogeneous, there was a need for an exploratory study. Based on the insights generated by a qualitative study and expert opinion, the final set of variables to measure online shopping behavior was shortlisted. An empirical study based on a sample size of 175 was carried out. EFA using Varimax rotation was run three times and a set of 46 items was reduced to 36. The total variance explained was 72.45%, the number of factors was reduced from 12 to 9 and a simple and interpret-able dimensionality structure was identified. The study has practical implications for the e-tailers in terms of gaining a better understanding of the online shopper behavior in the context of changing market dynamics.

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